Vijay nagar Empire
Vijay nagar Empire Dynasty The Vijay nagar Empire was (in modern Karnataka) based in the Deccan Plateau region in South India. It was established in 1336 by the two brothers Harihara and Bukka Raya of the Sangama dynasty, members of a pastoralist cowherd community that claimed Yadava lineage. During the reign of Muhammad Tughlaq. Vijay Nagar (modern Hampi) Initial Capital: – Anegundi Durg. South of the Tungabhadra River by Harihara and Bukka, the founders of the Vijaynagar Empire. During the reign of Muhammad Tughlaq. vijayanagar empire was established during the reign of vijayanagar empire weapons
During the time of Muhammad Tughlaq, the Delhi Sultanate was the most expanded. But he faced the most rebellion in South India. In 1325 AD, Muhammad Tughlaq’s cousin Bahauddin Gurshap revolted in a place called Sagar in Karnataka. The Sultan himself fled to South Gurshap and went to the Kampilya kingdom in Karnataka. As a result, Muhammad Tughlaq attacked Kampil and included him in the Delhi Sultanate.
Two officials of this state, Harihar and Bukka, were captured and brought to the Delhi Sultanate and here they were made Muslims. When rebellions started again in South India, these two brothers were sent back south after being made commanders. These brothers succeeded in ending the rebellion when only one saint, Madhav Vidya Anand and his brother, the commentator of the Vedas, came under the influence of Sayan.
Sayan again initiated them into Hinduism and inspired them to establish a new state. Thus laid the foundation of the city and state of Vijay Nagar south of the Tungabhadra River. Since the name of the father of these brothers was Sangam. For this reason, the dynasty established by them is called the Sangam dynasty.
A total of four dynasties Sangam, Saluva, Tuluva, and Ravid dynasty came into existence in Vijay Nagar state. After this, the Vijay Nagar empire fell.
Major sources to know Vijay Nagar empire: – Literary, archival, and foreign details are obtained to know about the Vijay Nagar empire.
- A forgather empire: – This book written by Sewell is a major source of knowing the Vijay Nagar empire.
- Aykut Malyad: – This book written by Krishna Devaraya in the Telugu language gives important information about Vijay nagar administration.
- Archival Evidence: – (1) A record dated 1354 AD of the time of Bukka I have been received. There is mention of Sati by a woman named Malagaud. (2) At the time of Devaraya II, a record of 1424 and 25 AD has been found in which dowry is an illegal record in which dowry is declared illegal. The buying and selling of slaves were called Wes Veg.
Abdurrazaq: – (1443 A.D.)
Ruler of Devaraya II. He was Natives of Fars.Regarding the city of Vijay Nagar, it described that “A city like Vijay Nagar was neither seen nor heard on this earth.”
According to this, there were a total of 300 ports in the Vijay Nagar state, each of which was equal to Calicut.
It has mentioned a secretariat in the Vijay Nagar state.
Barbosa 1508 AD
He was nativs of Portuguese. Ruler In the time of Krishna Devaraya. Barbosa describes the practice of Sati. But according to this, the practice was not prevalent among the upper classes like Lingayats, Chettis, and Brahmins. It has also described the economic condition of Vijay Nagar and has written that ships of South India are built on the island of Mal.
Emulsion (1620 to 22 AD)
Original place: – Portuguese
Ruler: – In the court of Krishna Devaraya.
(1) It has compared the city of Vijay to Rome.
(2) According to it, there were 200 provinces in Vijay Nagar.
(3) It has mentioned the celebration of the Navratri festival. And on the last day of this festival, many animals have been slaughtered.
(4) Accordingly, there is a temple in each street. And they are related to some artisans. His description reveals the high economic status of Vijay Nagar.
Nikitin (1470 to 74 AD)
It was originally a Russian traveler who came during the Bahmani ruler Muhammad III. At this time the ruler of Vijay Nagar was Virupaksha II. It has described the economic inequality of Vijay Nagar.
Political History of the Vijay nagar Empire
Founder of sangam dynesty was Harihar and Bukka ” Harihar ” (1336 to 53 AD)
Initial Capital: – Anegundi, Capital after seven years: – Vijay Nagar
With Harihar’s accession to the throne, the battle for Ramchur Doab started with the Bahmani ruler Alauddin Hasan Bahman. After the death of Hoysala ruler Ballal IV, Harihar merged his kingdom with his kingdom.
Bukka (1354 to 71 AD)
What is Bukka?
Bukka use Titles of “Ved Marga consecrator” and lord of the three seas.
War with the Bahamans: – In 1367 AD, there was a war between Bukka I and the Bahmani ruler Muhammad Shah I about the Mudgal Fort at Ramchur Doab. Artillery was used for the first time in this war.
Who was the first Vijay nagar king who sent his ambassador to China.?
Bukka I In 1374 sent an ambassador to China.
Madura Vijay: – In 1377 AD, Madura was annexed into the Vijay Nagar empire. Madura Vijay is credited to Bukka I’s son Kumar Viman. Gangadevi, the wife of Kumar Viman, has mentioned this in his famous book ‘Madura Vijay’.
Harihar II (1379 to 1404)
Title: – Maharajadhiraj and Rajparameshwar. Harihar II conquered North Sri Lanka and was also successful. Its biggest success was the capture of Goa and Belgaum from the Bahmani kingdom. But it had to be defeated by the Bahmani ruler Feroz Shah Bahmani. Vidyaranya and Sayan are mentioned during this point. In its inscriptions, Vidyaranya is mentioned as “the supreme light incarnation”.
- This Shaiva was pathetic.
- Telugu poet Shri Nath was its court poet.
- He wrote a book called “Hari Vilas”.
Its son after Harihar II Virupaksha ascended the primary throne. After this, Bukka II, the second son of Harihar II ascended the throne. After this, Devaraya ascended the throne.
Devarai I (1406 AD 22 AD)
He was the first to recruit Turko into the army. The war of Deora Raya I was with the Bahmani ruler Ferozeshah Bahmani, defeated by Ferozeshah Bahmani. He had to marry his daughter to Ferozeshah Bahmani and in dowry to Bikapur located in Ramchur Doab.
In his last time, he defeated Ferozeshah Bahamani, Devaraya I made dams on the Tungabhadra River and Haridra River and pulled out the canals. At the same time, the Itavali traveler Nicolokonti came to Vijay Nagar in 1420 AD. After the death of Devaraya, Veer Vijay or Bukka Vijay and Ram Chandra ascended the throne. After that, Devaraya II, son of Veer Vijay, ascended the throne.
Devarai II (1422 AD 46 AD)
Title: -Immadi Devarai, Adult (Adult) Devarai, Gajbetkar (Elephant hunter)
It was the best ruler of the Sangam dynasty. It recruited an outsized number of Muslims and archers in its army. As a result, Devaraya II succeeded in defeating the Bahmani ruler Feroz Shah Bahmani.
At an equivalent time, the Ambassador of Persia, Abdurrzaq (1443), came to the town of Vijay. Among its victories was the Kerala conquest. The Portuguese traveler Nuniz wrote that Quillan (Kerala region) Sri Lanka, Pulicat (Andra) Pegu (Varma) Ten, was paid to King Devaraya II of Sirim (Malaya). Telugu poet Shri Nath stayed here a few times. He entrusted the whole work of his business to Lakkana or Lakshmana. Lakshmana is described in its inscriptions as “the lord of the southern seas.”
During the amount of Devaraya II, there was a special advancement of Kannada and Sanskrit literature. Kumar Vyas wrote the famous Kannada treatise “Bharat” or “Bharatam” during this point. Devaraya II himself was a scholar. He wrote the Maha Natak Sudha Nidhi, a treatise in Sanskrit. aside from this, an article was also written on Brahma Sutra. A dowry was declared illegal during a record in its time of 1424-25 AD.
Mallikarjuna (1446 to 65 AD)
Title: -Dr Devarai
The decline of the Sangam dynasty started at this point.
Virupaksha II (1465 to 85 AD)
This was the last ruler of the Sangam dynasty. He wrote a treatise, Narayan Vilas, at an equivalent time the Sangam dynasty fell, and therefore the Bahmani Prime Minister, Mahmudgawan, conquered Goa, Chola, Dabhul, the region from Vijay Nagar. During the time of this ruler, Narasimha Saluva, the Principal of Chandragiri, gained power. And he defeated Virupaksha and established a replacement Saluva dynasty.
Narsingh Saluva was Founder of saluva dynasty
Narasimha Saluva (1486 to 90 AD)
The incident of Narasimha Saluva removing Virupaksha II from the throne and receiving the throne has been called the “first balloon”. Its main achievement was that it put an end to Vijayanagar’s childhood.
Immadi Narasimha (1490 to 1506)
Due to its age, its army hero Narsa Nayak became its patron. This closed the ruler within the fort of Penukonda and began ruling himself.
Narsa Nayak: –
it had been a crucial general. It invaded Chola, Chera, and Padanya kingdom. It also defeated the Gajpat ruler Prataparudra Gajapati of Orissa. it had been during this era that the famous Kannada treatise Jaimini Bharatam was composed. Narsa Nayak’s son Veer Nara Singh killed Imadi Narasimha and laid the inspiration for a replacement Tuluva dynasty.
Veer Nar Singh (1505 to 09 AD)
Founder: – Veer Nar Singh
The event of getting the throne during this way by Veer Narasimha is named ‘Second Baleshaar’. He removed the wedding tax.
Krishna Devaraya (1509 to 30 AD)
Krishna Deva Raya was the simplest ruler not only of the Tuluva dynasty but of the whole city of Vijay. This made the Vijay Nagar dynasty the simplest of its time with its cultural achievements. Even Babar has praised Krishna Dev Rai in his book Baburnama.
Vijayan: – Victory against the Gajapati rulers: – The rule of the Gajapatis was established in Orissa. He was quite powerful Gajapati Naresh Pratap Rudra Dev Gajapati was an to date of Krishna Dev Rai. He was defeated thrice by Krishna Devaraya and captured a number of his territories. A matrimonial relationship was also established between each-other.
Relation to Portuguese
The Portuguese wanted to form peace with Krishna Deva Raya. But initially, Krishna Dev Rai didn’t give any positive answer. When the Portuguese seized Goa from Bijapur in 1510 AD, Krishnadeva Raya made a treaty with them, its original purpose being to get horses from the Goa harbor.
Krishnadev Raya’s titles
- Yavan State Establishment: -Krishna Deva Raya liberated the Bahmani ruler Mahmud Shah from the clutches of Bidar, famous because the fox of the south, to commemorate it, he assumed the title of Yavan State Establishment Charya.
- Andhrabhoja or Abhinava Bhoja or Andhrapitamaah: – Krishna Devarai himself was a famous scholar. he’s credited with writing several books. Its court also housed eight famous scholars of Telugu literature. Who was called Ashta giants? that’s why Krishna Devaraya is named Andhra Bhoja.
Books by Krishna Dev Rai
Achitam Malyad: – this is often a book written on politics within the Telugu language. it’s also called global financial.
Usha Parinay: – This is often a book written in Sanskrit.
Jambavati Kalyan: – this is often also a book written in Sanskrit.
Ashta luminaries: – there have been eight famous scholars of Telugu literature within the court of Krishna Dev Rai who was called Ashta luminaries.
8 famous scholars of Telugu literature
- Alsani Peddan: – He was the foremost important scholar. He was given the title of Grandfather of Telugu poetry. His book is Manu Charit. Swarokitra Sambhava, Harikatha Saransambhu, also composed.
- Tenali Ramakrishna: – The name of his book “Pandurangamahatma” is calculated in five Mahavakyas (of Telugu language).
- Nadi Timman: – His book is Defeated, Haran.
- Bhattu Murthy: The book Naras Bhoomi Paliyam associated with Alankar Shastra is his work.
- Dhu-jote: -book tomorrow is great.
- Hodgy Air Mallanna: -Book, Rajasekhar Charit,
- Achyutraj Ramachandran: – Book, Ramabhyuday, Sakalakatha Sar Collection
- Jingli Surat: – Book Raghava Pandaveeyam,
Vijay Nagar carpet art
The Vijay nagar Empire temples are samples of the Dravin style. But they even have two other characteristics.
- Kalyan Mandap: – it’s an open courtyard next to the sanctum sanctorum. during which ceremonies and marriage ceremonies associated with deities were held.
- within the time of Krishna Dev Rai, Mandapas with thousand pillars were constructed.
The temple of Vitthal Swami and therefore the temple of Hazara Ram are famous among the main temples of the time of Krishna Devaraya.
City Construction: – Krishna Dev Rai is credited with building a city called Nagalapur. aside from this, Hospet also credits the development of the town.
Foreign travelers during the sangam period
Barbosa: – Location in 1508: – Portuguese
Pius: -1520 to 22 AD Portuguese came to Vijay Nagar.
Entertainment source of Vijay Nagar
Krishna Dev Rai was very keen on music and Shantaranja.
Achyut Devaraya (1529 to 42 AD)
Sadasivaraya, son of Krishna Devaraya, was only 18 months old. that’s why he appointed his cousin Achyuta Devarai because the ruler, it didn’t like Krishna Dev Rai’s son (son-in-law) Ramarai, he wanted to place Sadashivarai on the throne.
during this way, differences arose within the Raj family. Nuniz Yatri also came during this point. The word coward or bhairu is mentioned for this ruler.
Venkat I (1542 AD): – Sadashiv Rai ascended the throne after removing it as a ruler for less than 6 months.
Sadashivarai (1542 to 72 AD)
In the time of Sadashiv Rai, real power came into the hands of Ram Rai. Ramarai was very ambitious. He started defeating the kingdoms of Dakshini one by one. H
is policy was that by defeating one state and defeating the opposite state, gradually he made Vijay nagar Empire reach the very best position but his policy which is named the policy of cutting iron from iron and therefore the policy of cutting diamonds from the diamond.
is understood to possess caused her downfall. The reputation of barbers increased during the time of Sadashivarai. He freed them from business taxes.
The battle of the demonic Tangdi or the battle of Banni Hatti or Tali Kota (23 January 1565 AD): – With the increasing power of Vijay Nagar, the four kingdoms of the south, Ahmed Nagar, Bijapur, this union didn’t include Berar. This association was led by Ali Adilshah, the ruler of Bijapur.
The real explanation for war
- Improper policy of Ramarai.
- equivalent envy and hatred of the southern states towards Vijay Nagar.
- Farishta has given a special reason for the Talikota war. consistent with him, during the invasion of Aham Nagar, Ramraya insulted the faith of Islam and demolished the mosques.
At the battle site, Ahmed Nagar ruler Hussain Nizamshah shouted and slammed 70-year-old Ramarai. “Now I even have avenged you, may Allah do whatever I would like .” Ramalai’s brother Tirumal visited ‘Penukonda’ with Sadashiv Rai and laid the inspiration of a replacement kingdom ‘Ravidu’ dynasty there.