Administration of Delhi Sultanate
Administration: – The administration of the Delhi Sultanate was based on the Arabic-Persian system. The focal point of this administration was the king or sultan. It ruled in the name of Sultan Khuda. Whereas the real power was rooted in Sunni fraternity bhashana or milalat. Since the Muslim governance system was based on the religious book Quran and in the Muslim world, the khalifa was the supreme religious person after the Prophet.
That is why most of the rulers of Delhi Sultanate accepted the power of the Khalifa. And tried to get a break from them. Only Alauddin Khilji and Mubarak Khilji did not accept the intervention of the Khalifa in any way. Mubarak Khilji called himself Khalifa. Baghdad was previously the focal point of the khalifa. But later it was transferred to Egypt. Timur Lung abolished the power of the khalifa in the 14th century.
The Wazir and Amir were the two principal officers to assist in the Sultan’s administrative work.
Delhi Sultanate Administration important Glossary
Wazir: – During the time of Delhi Sultanate, the golden period of Vajra is considered to be during the Tughlaqs, especially during the time of Feroze Tughlaq. The name of his wazir was Khanne Jahan Maqbool. While Izzutmish’s wazir was named Muhammad Khan Junendi. The following period of Vajra is considered during Balban.
Amir: –The Golden Age of the Amirs is considered to be in the time of the Lodis because the Lodi rulers’ relations with their Afghan rich were based on brother fodder. The low times of the rich are considered to be during the time of Balban and Alauddin.
Delhi sultanate during the time of Balban and Alauddin
Council of Ministers: – There was a Council of Ministers called Majlis-e-Khalwat to assist in the Delhi sultanate administrative functions of the Sultan.
Majlis-e-Khas: – The place where the meeting of Majlis-e-Salwat was called Majlis-e-Khas. Only special people were called here.
Bar-e-Azam: – This is where the Sultan did most of the state work. Scholars, Qazi Mulla, etc. were also present here to help him.
Bar-e-Khas: – Here the Sultan used to call his principal allies and consult with them.
In the Council of Ministers or Majlis-e-Khalwat, four departments were very important-
Diwan-e-Vizrat: – It was the most important department in the Delhi sultanate. It was like an economic ministry.
Diwan-i-Arj: – It was a military department. It was founded by Balban.
Deewane-e-Raslat: – It was the State Department.
Deewane-e-Insha: – This was the correspondence department. Its level had fallen during the time of Feroze Tughlaq. The governor of Multan, Elul Mulk Multan, in his letters Insha-e-Maharu has complained that people do not bring their complaints directly to him and take them to the clerics. And these clerics ask for my response.
Diwane-e-Wazarat: – This was the most important department. Its chief was the wazir or prime minister. Several departments were attached to the Deewane Wazarat, which is described below.
Diwan-e-Ashraf: – It was the auditor’s department.
Diwan-i-Bhawan: – It was the Public Works Department. It was founded by Feroze Tughlaq.
Diwan-i-Amir Kohi: – Department of Agriculture, established by Muhammad Tughlaq.
Diwan-e-Wakuf: – Taking care of expenditure papers.
Diwan-i-Mustakharaj: – There was a department to recover dues in the name of officers. It was founded by Alauddin Khilji.
Wazir’s associates: –
- Naib-e-Wazir: – Wazir’s assistant.
- Mushrif-e-Mubalik: Accountant General.
- Mustafa-e-Mubalik: – Auditor General.
- Majumdar: – The accountant of income and expenditure.
- Khajin: – Cashier
- Nasir: – He was also an assistant to the Majmuadar, an officer of the measure.
- Advocate-i-Sultanate: – Department established by Nasiruddin Mahmud. The task of this department was to take care of the governance and military system. It replaced Wazir.
- Naib-e-Mamlikat: – It was founded by Bahram Shah. The term was first used by Ikhtiaruddin Aitagin. But Balban consumed the most.
- Muhtasib: – The officer appointed by Alauddin used to check the conduct of the people. It was also called a censor officer.
- Sadr-us-Far: – Religion and Charity Department.
- Qazi-ul-Qajat: – Department of Justice
Normally Sadr-us-Far and Qazi ul Qajat were under the same person and the religious tax of this person was based on Zakat.
- Varid-e-Mumalik: – Head of the Intelligence Department.
- Diwan-i-istihaq: – Pension Department, it was founded by Feroz Tughlaq.
- Diwan-i-Khairat: – Donation Department, established by Feroz Tughlaq.
- Darul-e-Shafa: – Established by Feroz related to medicines.
Officials related to the court in Delhi sultanate
- Vakil-e-Dar: – It looked after the personal services of the royal palace and the Sultan.
- Barbar: – It used to take care of the pride and rituals of the court.
- Ameer-e-Hajib: – used to investigate people meeting the Sultan. It was also called an officer of courtesy.
- Sir-e-Jadar: – The Chief Officer of the Sultan’s bodyguards.
- Amir-e-Majlish: – The principal officer managing royal festivals and banquets.
- Amir-e-Shikar: – The arranger of the Sultan’s hunt.
- Amir-e-Aakhoor: – Head of the horse.
- Shehna-e-Peel: – Head of Hasti-Sena.
The provincial administration of Delhi sultanate
Kendra-prant (iqta) – Shik-Pargana-Gram
The provinces were called Ikta or Akta. Iltutmish started the practice of Iqta in India. The definition of iqta is found in Nizamulmulk’s book Siyasat Naam. Iqta was the land revenue area given for monopoly which could be given to anyone, military or civilian. Among the Delhi Sultans, the most iqtas were in the time of Muhammad Tughlaq. The chief of Iqta was called Iqtadar or Mukta or Vali.
In Balban’s time, Iqta was divided into districts or Shikas, the chief of Shikas was called Shikdar.
Parganas: – The districts (Parganas) were divided into tehsils. Here Amil or Nazim was the principal officer. It was assisted by Khazin Mushtashiraf etc.
Village: – The head of the village was called Mukaddam while the landlords of the village were called Khoot. Ordinary farmers were called Balahars.
Military organization: – The Central Army of Delhi sultanate was called Hashm-e-Walb while the provincial army was called Hashm-e-Atarf. The royal cavalry was called the Savar-i-Kalb. The provincial cavalry was called Savar-e-Atarf. Ottoman emir, Iranian Mongol, Afghani, and Indian Muslims were included in the Sultanate era army.
Khas-Khel: – The standing army of the Sultanate was called Khas Khel. The first military department was established in Balban’s time. Its name was Wall-e-Arj and its chief was Ariz-e-Mumalik but the first permanent army or standing army was formed in the time of Alauddin. He also introduced the practice of firing the soldiers’ hulia and horses.
Army base: – The army was organized on the decimal system of Mongols. At first, Alauddin organized his army based on this system, Muhammad Tughlaq ideally formed his army based on the decimal system.
Decimal system: – Based on the decimal system, the army was organized in the following way- played a sar-e-Khela on 10 soldiers.
- A warlord on 10 sar-e-Khel.
- A rich in 10 warlords.
- A Malik at 10 Amir.
- A mine at 10 Malik.
- Tule Ah and Yazki: – It was military detectives who reported the activities of the enemy army.
Different types of weapons during the Delhi sultanate
- Weapons that break-Manjanik and Arrada forts.
- Yarkh-rock missile.
- Gargaz-Chalimaan Mancha.
- Samvat-Safe Train.
The judicial system of Delhi sultanate
The Sultan was the supreme judge of the state. At this time Islamic laws were based on the Shari’a Quran and Hadith. The four major sources of Muslim law were-
(1) Quran: – The Holy Book of Muslims and the major source of Muslim law.
(2) Hadith: – Mention of statements and actions of the Prophet. Hadith was resorted to if the problem was not resolved by the Quran.
(3) Ijma: – Laws interpreted by Muslim religious scholars which were believed to be the will of Allah.
(4) Assumption: – Laws interpreted based on logic. Kazi used to be the principal officer of justice. Its department was called Diwane Kaja.
Amir-e-Dad: – He used to assist in Qazi cases.
Naib-e-Dadbak: – It is used to assist Amir-e-Dad.
Fiqh: – Islamic scripture. The Muslim punishment method was strictly enforced according to the rules stated in fiqh.
The Muslim ruler had the following important duties according to the rules of the Quran.
Destroying idol worshipers.
Jihad (war of religion) converting Darul Herb (country of Kafiro) to Darul Islam.
Finance system of Delhi sultanate
Delhi Sultanate’s finance system was based on the financial principles of the Hunki branch of Sunni Law. The following were the main taxes of the Delhi Sultanate.
(1) Jaziya: – The word Jaziya is derived from the word Jimmy, which was given to non-Muslims. Because they were free from military service. Muslim rulers took their responsibility for them. This tax started only after the invasion of Sindh, but Brahmins, women, aged, crippled, children, slaves, and ascetics were free from this tax, that is, it was usually taken from adult men.
Firoz Tughlaq also imposed jiziya on the Brahmins for the first time. Jaziya was a type of differentiation tax. But it cannot be considered a religious tax. There was no special income from Jizya. 10 taka from the general class, 20 takas from the middle class, and 40 takas from the upper class were taken every year.
In the medieval period, the famous Jainul Abadin, who was known as Badshah of Kashmir, first removed the jizya. The Jaziya was also removed by Alauddin Hasan Bahman Shah, the ruler of Bahmani.
During the Mughal period, it was removed by Akbar but re-implemented by Aurangzeb. But this was opposed by Raj Singh, the ruler of Mewar. Among the Mughal rulers of the northern era, Jahandarshah removed it first, after which Farukhsiyar also continued the same policy.
(2) Zakat: – It was a religious tax. Its quantity was 1/40 or two and a half percent. Qazi used to have authority over this. It was taken only from rich Muslims.
(3) Sadka: – It was also a religious tax which is sometimes considered Zakat.
(4) Nisab: – The minimum amount of property above which zakat was taken.
(5) Kharaj: – It was land revenue, its volume was 1/3. Rulers like Alauddin lost 50%.
(6) Urs: – Land revenue derived from Muslims was 10%.
(7) Khams: – It was part of the loot, according to Quran, 80% of it should be given to the army while 20% of the king / Alauddin overturned it and took 80% part himself while leaving 20% for the army. Feroze Tughlaq divided it according to the Quran.
(8) Hab-e-Serb: – It was an irrigation tax. The amount that Feroz Tughlaq applied was 10%.
(9) Commercial tax: – It was charged at 2.5% from Muslims while 5% from non-Muslims.
(10) Gharikar or Charikar: – Beginning by Alauddin on houses and pastures respectively.
Types of land in Delhi sultanate
(1) Land of Iqta: – The owner of this land was Iqtadar called Mukta. Balban had appointed an officer named Khwaja who looked after Mukta and Bali’s work.
(2) Land of Khalsa: – It was directly under the control of the center. The revenue of Amil was collected here.
(3) Ursi land: – This land was owned by Turkish Muslims.
(4) Land of Inam and Waqf: – It used to be a tax-free land and it also had hereditary rights.
Lagaan system in Delhi sultanate
In the Delhi Sultanate period the terms Kismat-e-Galla, Galla Bakshi, Batai, etc. have been used for the revenue system. It was such a system of rent fixation in which land was directly shared by the state. In the Delhi Sultanate period, the following 3 types of sharing were prevalent.
(1) Distribution of fields: – Determination of tax by dividing the field only after standing crop or sowing.
(2) Lank sharing: – After cutting the field, the partition between the farmer and the government without extracting the straw from the grain brought in the Khalian.
(3) Amount distributed: – After separating the straw from the grain in the barn, its distribution.
(4) Masahat: – Determining rent based on the measurement of land is called Masahat. This system was introduced by Alauddin Khilji.
(5) Muktai: – It was a mixed system of tax assessment (Lagaan). In this, the tax was levied on the contractor and the contractor levied a tax on the farmers.
Major historical works in Delhi sultanate
- Chachnama: A book written in Arabic by Ali Ahmed which mentions the Arab invasion of Sindh.
- Tarikh Sindh or Tarikh Masumi: – Author Mir-Muhammad Masoom. History from the conquest of the Arabs to the reign of Akbar.
- Kitabul Yamini: – Ulbi – This book describes the reign of Subuktagin and Ghaznavi.
- Zainul-Akhbar: – Abu Saeed – This book provides information about the history of Iran and the life of Mahmud Ghaznavi.
- Tarikh Masudi: Abul Fazl Muhammad bin Hussain Al Bahri – Information about Mahmud Ghaznavi is available.
- Tarikh-ul-Hind or Kitabul Hind or Tehkeke Hind: – Alberuni 11th century.
Nasiri: – History from Minhajuddin Siraj Muhammad Ghori to Nasiruddin Mahmud. Minhaj dedicated his work to Mahmud, the last ruler of the first Ilbari dynasty. In this book, Nasiruddin Mehmood has been described as the ideal Sultan of Delhi Sultanate. Minhaj was also made the chief qazi of Delhi. (Iltutmish)
Tarikh Ferozshahi: – Ziauddin Barani – Where Minhaj ends his history, his further history comes from the book of Barani. In it, information is received from the coronation of Balban to the sixth year of the rule of Feroze Tughlaq.
Fatwa-e-Jahandari: – Barani – In this book, Burney’s political thoughts are currents. Books of Amir Khusra: –
(1) Khazine-ul-Fatuh: – The first 15 years of the events of Alauddin are narrated.
(2) Kiran-us-Sardon: – It describes the union of Bugra Khan and his son Kaikubad.
(3) Mifta-ul-Fatuh: – It describes the military operations of Jalaluddin Khilji.
(4) The story of Ishqiya Ashika or Khizr Khan and Deval Rani: – This book mentions the love between Deval Rani, daughter of King Karna of Gujarat, and Khizr Khan, son of Alauddin. This book was written by Amir Khusra at the behest of Khizr Khan. It is also found in this book that Amir Khusro himself was imprisoned by the Mongols.
(5) Noor Sipihara: – Information about the time of Mubarak Khilji.
(6) Tughlakanama: – This book describes the victories of Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq etc.
(7) Futuh-us-Salatin: – Khwaja Abubakr Izami – This book has severely criticized the religious policy of Muhammad Tughlaq. The book is dedicated to Bahman Shah, the founder (ruler) of the Bahmani dynasty.
(8) Kitabul Rehla: – Ibn Batuta’s travelogue in the Arabic language. This book mentions the politics and social conditions of India from 1333 to 42 AD. Ibn Batuta was also appointed Qazi of Delhi sultanate by Muhammad Tughlaq. It was also sent as ambassador to China in 1342 but could not reach there.
(9) Date-Firoz Shahi: – Shamsheiraj opium
(10) Fatuhate Feroz Shahi: – Firoz Tughlaq
(11) Date Date Mubarak Shahi: – Yehia bin Ahmed Sirhindi – It is dedicated to Mubarak Shah, ruler of the Sayyid dynasty.
(12) Gulrukhi: – Sikander Lodi wrote poems in Persian under the name of Gulrukh.
book of Delhi sultanate
(1) Dulayle Firozshahi: – Translated from Sanskrit to Persian by Anjuddin Khalid Khani, book in the time of Feroze Tughlaq. It is related to astrology.
(2) Tibbe or Farhge Sikandri: – Wazir Mian Bhua of Sikandar Lodi followed Sanskrit to Persian. This book is related to medical science.